General Braxton Bragg

Written by Craig Pippen, Camp 2205, Stem, NC

Braxton Bragg, born March 22, 1817 to Thomas and Margaret Bragg was one of six sons. He grew up in Warrenton, NC where his father was a carpenter. With his family being lower class, Thomas Bragg had to save up to send Braxton to the Warrenton Male Academy. This private facility was one of the premier schools in the state. Thomas Bragg wanted his son, Braxton, to be a soldier, and had his older brother, John, a state legislator, secure Senator Willie P. Mangum’s appointment of Braxton to the U. S. Military Academy. Therefore, at the age of 16, Braxton Bragg enrolled in the U. S. Military Academy. Bragg performed well at West Point, receiving few demerits, and achieving academic success. In the class of 1837, Braxton Bragg placed fifth out of one hundred and fifty. Upon graduation, he received commission as Second Lieutenant in the 3rd U. S. Artillery.

Bragg served in the Second Seminole War in Florida as a commissary officer. Getting sick, Bragg blamed the tropical climate of Florida and sought a medical transfer. This transfer sent Bragg to recruiting duty in Philadelphia. However, he was received orders back to Florida as a company commander and assumed command of Fort Marion. In this role, he labored for the improved conditions for his men, and was labeled “disputatious”

Braxton Bragg, a strict disciplinarian, followed policy and regulations to the letter. He later survived two assassination attempts on his life in 1847. In one, the attackers exploded a twelve-pound ball under his cot. Bragg, who was unscathed, never brought charges against anyone for the attacks.

In 1844, Bragg testified in front of a Congressional Panel despite orders from General Winfield Scott not to. Arrest and confinement at Fort Monroe, VA resulted. In the trial, Bragg led his own defense, which turned into a condemnation of Scott. Found guilty, Bragg received a reprimand and suspension at half pay for two months. This being a relatively mild punishment, Bragg continued to criticize his superiors.

March 1, 1845 found Bragg and his artillery company ordered to the aid of General Zachary Taylor in the defense of Texas from attack by Mexico. Lieutenant Bragg received promotion to captain in June of 1846. Leading his artillery, he gained the professional admiration of many men in Taylor’s command. Implementing new tactics of light artillery gained Bragg the respect of Taylor. In the Battle of Buena Vista in February 1847, Bragg gained national recognition for placing his artillery in a gap in the line and repelling a larger Mexican force that was attacking Colonel Jefferson Davis’s Mississippi Rifles. The admiration that Bragg gained from the future U. S. Secretary of War and President of the Confederacy remained in his memory.

Upon his return to the United States, Braxton Bragg met and married Eliza B. Ellis in 1849. The Army life sent them to serve at many outposts in Indian Territory and Texas, which were unsuitable for the young married couple. Wanting to move his artillery battery from the frontier, Bragg took leave and went to Washington to speak with Secretary of War Davis. This action would not lead to the moving of the battery, so, on December 31, 1855 Braxton Bragg resigned from the Army.

Bragg and his wife moved to Thibodaux, LA and set up a sugar cane plantation. He utilized 105 slaves in his operation there. His stern disciplinary and efficiency traits led to quick profits. Bragg was worried about the division the nation was starting to develop. He did not believe in secession.

Before the Civil War, Bragg received appointment as a Colonel of the Louisiana Militia. Governor Moore tasked him with developing a 5,000-man army in 1860. In January 1861, Bragg led 500 volunteers in the capture of the Federal arsenal in Baton Rouge. The Louisiana Secession Convention established a state army to aid in its defense. Bragg, tapped to lead this army, received appointment to Major General. His command received transfer to the Confederate Army in March of 1861 with him receiving a brigadier general commission and command of the West Florida Department. Upon his promotion in September 1861 to major general, Bragg became commander of the Trans-Mississippi Department by order of President Davis. Bragg declined this command and it fell to Edmund Kirby Smith. Bragg recommended that Davis combine his troops with those in Tennessee for a more concentrated force. Davis agreed and Braxton Bragg, with 10,000 men, traveled to Corinth, Tennessee to join Albert Sydney Johnston there. He led a corps under Johnston and served as Chief of Staff. With the death of Johnston, P. G. T. Beauregard assumed command, and Bragg was his second in command. The Union troops pushed the Confederates back to Corinth.

Bragg was promoted by order of Jefferson Davis to full general, dating from April 6, 1862. Bragg was the sixth man appointed to this rank and only one more promoted after Bragg received his appointment. This promotion left Bragg in command of the Western Department. Leading this Department, Bragg joined with Edmund Kirby Smith in a movement in Tennessee and Western Kentucky culminating at the Battle of Perryville where his men fought Union forces under Don Carlos Buell. Bragg pulled his men back despite the requests of Smith to continue to fight and press their advantage. Bragg’s Army took up positions around Nashville. During this period, he received orders to go to Richmond to answer complaints from his subordinates who were calling for his replacement. Jefferson Davis ultimately ordered Bragg back to command the army which he moved to Murfreesboro, TN. The complaints by his subordinates led to problems for Bragg during the remainder of the war.

December 31, 1862 found Bragg’s men in the Battle of Stones River. This engagement pitted the Army of the Cumberland against Bragg’s men. On January 2, 1863, Bragg ordered an attack against the Union troops whom they had pushed back two days prior. The well-entrenched Union men fought gallantly and caused Bragg’s Army to fall back due to severe winter weather and a lack of progress. Two of his corps commanders, Hardee and Polk, recommended he withdraw his forces to Tullahoma, TN. Bragg heeded this advice and withdrew from battle.

Several of Bragg’s commanders again voiced their displeasure to Jefferson Davis in regards to the handling by Bragg of his army in Kentucky and Stones River. Joseph Johnston investigated the concerns with hopes by Jefferson Davis that he would assume command. However, upon his arrival he found Bragg’s Army of Tennessee well equipped and well disciplined. Johnston refused to take command of the Army. Davis ordered Bragg to Richmond, however, due to his wife’s illness there was a delay in the carrying out of this order. By the time Bragg went to Richmond, Johnston was unable to take command due to his injuries sustained at Seven Pines.

Bragg and his army remained at Tullahoma and entrenched the area making it a strong defensive position. In June of 1863, Rosecrans flanked Bragg’s Army and forced it back across the Tennessee River. In July of 1863, Simon Buckner’s command of 17,000 men joined the Army of Tennessee’s 52,000 men. This also brought another subordinate who did not like Bragg. Hardee received a transfer to Mississippi and Lt. General Daniel Harvey Hill received assignment as his replacement. Bragg remained cautious of Rosecrans’s Army and eventually gave up the City of Chattanooga on September 8, 1863.

General Braxton Bragg led his Army of Tennessee into Northern Georgia. He continued to be bothered with insubordinate officers. D. H. Hill and Major General Hindman refused to attack a Federal column and then, Polk refused to attack without reinforcements. The Army of Rosecrans took these delays and consolidated.

Rosecrans pursued Bragg into Georgia before Bragg turned on him and attacked at, what would be known as, the Battle of Chickamauga. The Army of Tennessee, reinforced by Lt. General Longstreet with two divisions from Virginia, and two more divisions from Mississippi, was ready for battle. After a fierce battle between the Army of the Cumberland and the reinforced Army of Tennessee, Rosecrans had to retreat with both sides suffering heavy loses. This action was the best Western Theater victory of the Confederacy. However, it did not accomplish its goal of crushing Rosecrans and cutting him off from Chattanooga. It was a stubborn defense by General Thomas and his men. It saved the Army of the Cumberland as it retreated to Chattanooga

Bragg laid siege to the Army of the Cumberland in Chattanooga. While doing this, he also began to do battle with the subordinates that he believed failed him in the campaign. Bragg suspended Polk and Hindman for their insubordination. In early October, D. H. Hill lost his command, due to an attempted mutiny by other officers against Bragg.

In this time, numerous generals expressed their displeasure with Bragg’s command and lack of following up the victory at Chickamauga. Lt. General Longstreet wrote the Secretary of War requesting the removal of Bragg. Numerous other generals in command of corps and divisions signed a petition for his removal from command. Jefferson Davis traveled to the Army to stem the tide and investigate the complaints. The conclusion of his investigation led to Bragg offering a resignation; however, Davis left him in command and denounced his other officers.

Longstreet’s departure to Knoxville weakened Bragg’s Army. Bragg attacked the Union forces at the Battle of Chattanooga. At the Battle of Lookout Mountain, his army was routed by a frontal assault. This action caused the Army of Tennessee to retreat to Dalton, GA. Bragg offered his resignation on November 29, 1864. Davis immediately accepted it much to the chagrin of Braxton Bragg.

General Braxton Bragg received a reassignment as President Davis’s Military Adviser. In this position, he improved the conscription process and supply systems. He also took over command of prisons and hospitals in the Confederacy. While in Richmond, he quarreled with many other prominent officers and officials. However, Robert E. Lee was the exception, as Bragg would not quarrel with Lee, noting that both were close with President Davis and both remained very polite and cordial to each other.

In May of 1864, Bragg received the task of improving the defenses of Richmond along with P. G. T. Beauregard. Davis consulted with Bragg on who should command the Army of Tennessee with his thoughts of replacing Johnston with Hardee. Bragg did not want to see Hardee appointed to command and recommended Lt. General John Bell Hood. Davis accepted Bragg’s recommendation and General Hood received command of the Army of Tennessee.

Bragg received orders to go to Wilmington, NC to command the defenses there. At the request of General Robert E. Lee, Bragg became commander of the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia. With Sherman’s March to the Sea under way, Davis ordered Bragg to defend Savannah, then Charleston before returning to Wilmington in 1865. He was present for the first attack on Fort Fisher, which was successfully repelled. In the second attack on Fort Fisher, Bragg’s actions were not highly regarded. He believed Fort Fisher impenetrable due to the first attack being repelled and did not support it with reinforcements in time for it to hold.

Braxton Bragg would begin to see his Confederate military career fall around him. In February, he was relieved as Davis’s Military Adviser with General Lee as General-in-Chief of all forces. Then, further upsetting Bragg was the return of Joseph E. Johnston to command the Army of Tennessee’s remnants in South Carolina and Georgia, and John Breckenridge’s appointment as Secretary of War. He requested a transfer but President Davis could not authorize it due to political concerns from the Trans-Mississippi area. In effect, he would lead a corps under General Johnston for the Carolina’s Campaign. Bragg saw some success scoring a minor victory at Kinston. NC before being defeated with Johnston at Bentonville, NC. With the fall of Richmond on April 2, he met up with President Davis and attended the final Confederate Cabinet Meeting. Upon the close of this meeting, Bragg rode with part of his staff west. They would be capture and paroled on May 1 in Georgia.

Braxton Bragg and Elise lost their sugar cane plantation in 1862 by occupation of the Federal Army. In 1867, he became Superintendent of the New Orleans waterworks. He lost this position to a black man when the Re-Constructionist Party came to power. In 1869, Jefferson Davis offered him a job selling insurance for the Carolina Life Insurance Company. He worked for four months in this position before becoming frustrated with low pay and dissatisfaction. He drifted into the town of Mobile, AL and worked briefly as an engineer there before quarreling with numerous top officials. He moved to Texas and became Chief Engineer for the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe Railroad. Due to a disagreement over his wages, railroad officials removed him after only a year. He remained in Texas as an Inspector of Railroads. He died in Galveston, TX while walking down the street. His remains rest in Magnolia Cemetery in Mobile, AL.

General Richard Caswell Gatlin

Written by Craig Pippen, Camp 2205, Stem, NC

Richard Caswell Gatlin was born to parents, John Slade Gatlin and Susannah Caswell Gatlin, in Kinston, NC on January 18, 1809. His namesake was his maternal grandfather, Richard Caswell, the first North Carolina Governor. Gatlin graduated from the United States military academy in West Point, NY. He graduated 35th in the Class of 1832.

Upon his graduation, he received a commission to second lieutenant of infantry. In this posting, he served in the Native American Territory. He served in the U. S. Army during the Seminole Wars in 1839-1842. After the Seminole Wars ended in 1842, he served in Louisiana. The year 1845 brought a promotion to captain and relocation to Texas. He served during the Mexican War in the defense of Fort Brown in 1846. Gatlin received a wound during the Battle of Monterey assault. He then took part in the Seminole Wars of 1849-1850. He served various frontier assignments until the Utah War began. In this role, he marched with Albert Sydney Johnston to Utah. He met and married Mary Ann Gibson in 1857. He received a promotion to the rank of major before resigning his commission in April of 1861 to serve the State of North Carolina in the War Between the States.

Gatlin received a promotion to Major General of Militia and assignment as Adjutant General for the State of North Carolina. He received a commission of colonel in the regular army of the Confederacy. He took command of the Southern Department of North Carolina including the coastal defenses. He was promoted to Brigadier General in the regular army and was given total command of the N. C. Department and coastal defenses in August 1861.

Gatlin had only briefly assumed command when the Union forces took Fort Hatteras. He then focused his defense on New Bern, NC. Upon his suggestion, the authorities formed a Coastal North Carolina District and assigned Daniel Harvey Hill to command it. New Bern fell in March of 1862 despite requests by Caswell to receive reinforcements.

Gatlin began to suffer from severe and debilitating illness and was relieved of his duties in March of 1862. Gatlin resigned in September of 1862 but served as the Adjutant and Inspector General of North Carolina.

Upon the end of the war, Richard Caswell Gatlin moved to Arkansas with his wife and settled in Sebastian County as a farmer. He remained in this area until 1881 when he and his wife moved to Fort Smith, AR. He passed away on September 8, 1896. He and his wife rest at Fort Smith National Cemetery in Fort Smith, AR.

General Daniel Harvey Hill

Written by Craig Pippen, Camp 2205, Stem, NC

Daniel Harvey Hill, born on July 12, 1821 at Hill’s Iron Works in York District, South Carolina, was the son of Solomon Hill and Nancy Cabeen Hill. He grew up and attended the United States Military Academy and graduating 28th out of 56 in the Class of 1842. After his graduation, he received a commission to second lieutenant and served in the artillery. There he saw action in the Mexican War at the Battles of Contreras and Churububsco. He also would be brevetted a major after his actions at the Battle of Chapultepec.

D. H. Hill resigned from the Army in 1849 to take a position as a mathematics professor in Lexington, Virginia at Washington College. In Lexington, he met Thomas J. Jackson who became his brother-in-law. While at Washington College, Hill authored a math textbook, endorsed by Jackson. He became a professor at Davidson College in 1854, and served in that role until 1859 when he became superintendent of the North Carolina Military Institute in Charlotte.

Hill married Isabella Morrison in 1848. She was daughter of a prominent minister in North Carolina, Robert Hall Morrison. Hill and Isabella had nine children. Their youngest son served as Chief Justice of the Arkansas Supreme Court from 1904 until 1909. Daniel Harvey Hill, Jr. became President of North Carolina State University.

Hill offered his services to North Carolina upon its secession from the Union. He received appointment to Colonel of the 1st N. C. Infantry. In this capacity he led troops in the first land battle of the war near Fort Monroe, Virginia, known as the Battle of Big Bethel on June 10, 1861. He received a promotion to brigadier general and command of troops around Richmond. He served in this capacity until receiving a promotion to major general and given a Divisional Command in the spring of 1862.

Hill fought in Yorktown, Williamsburg, and in the Peninsula Campaign. He gained distinction for his actions at the Battle of Seven Pines and the Seven Days Battles where he fought gallantly.

Hill received the task by General Lee to meet with Union General John Dix to reach an agreement for prisoner exchanges between armies. The two met and came to an agreement, the Dix-Hill Cartel, on July 22, 1862.

When the Army of Northern Virginia moved into Maryland in 1862, D. H. Hill was leading a Division in the Second Corps. His men fought gallantly at the Battle of South Mountain buying enough time for General Lee to concentrate his forces in Sharpsburg, MD. In the ensuing battle at Sharpsburg, he fought with his troops at the Sunken Road, commonly called the Bloody Lane. Hill had three horses shot from under him in this fierce engagement but held the line with his men and after rallying men of various other divisions. He did not fight in Fredericksburg or Gettysburg. In June 1863, while Lee and the Army moved north to Pennsylvania, it was Hill left in command to defend Richmond.

Some of the blame for the failures in the Maryland Campaign that put on D. H. Hill for losing the Order 191 was unjust. This order was a detailed plan of Lee’s movements and strengths. Union forces found a copy of the order and gave it to General McClellan. However, D. H. Hill had his original copy and there has been controversy ever since over whom the orders belonged to and with whom the blame should rest.

Major General Hill failed to get the promotion for the command of the Second Corps after Stonewall Jackson’s death. It was at this time that General Hill began his quarrels with General Lee. He was upset over the pass over for lieutenant general despite having been eligible. He then received orders to NC to recruit troops. In the fall of 1863, he received orders to go to the Army of Tennessee with a temporary promotion to lieutenant general and command of one of Braxton Bragg’s Corps. Leading a Corps in the Chickamauga Battle, his troops saw some of the heaviest fighting. After the battle, Hill joined the other officers under Bragg’s command and openly expressed their displeasure in Bragg not following up on the Confederate Victory at Chickamauga. In response, President Davis came directly to the Army to resolve the issue. He ruled in favor of General Bragg despite overwhelming distrust of him. Upon reorganization, again, of the Army of Tennessee, General Bragg requested Hill be removed. This left Hill with no Corps to command and his rank reverted to major general. Sent home to North Carolina, he served in several smaller capacities, mostly volunteer roles. Hill served as an aide for General P. G. T. Beauregard. He also served as a trench and fortifications inspector in Petersburg. Hill fought his last action at the Battle of Bentonville in North Carolina. In this battle, he was a Division Commander for the Army of Tennessee under General Joseph E. Johnston. He was present at the Durham Station surrender of the Army of Tennessee to William T. Sherman on April 26, 1865.

Daniel Hill returned to North Carolina where he became editor of the Charlotte based magazine The Land We Love. He became President of the University of Arkansas. He moved to Georgia in 1885 and led the Military and Agriculture College of Milledgeville, GA. General Hill served in this role until his resignation in 1889 due to his declining heath. He died from cancer on September 24, 1889. His remains lie buried in the Davidson College Cemetery in Davidson, NC.

Gen. George Burgwyn Anderson

Written by Craig Pippen, Camp 2205, Stem, NC

George Burgwyn Anderson was born in Orange County, North Carolina, on April 21, 1831, the eldest son of William Anderson and Frances E. Burgwyn. He attended private school at the Caldwell Institute and worked with his father on the plantation. George Anderson attended the University of North Carolina in nearby Chapel Hill until receiving an appointment to the U. S. Military Academy in West Point, NY. He graduated in the class of 1852 and received a brevet Second Lieutenant Billet in the 2nd U. S. Dragoons. Training in Carlisle, PA, George then became a second lieutenant in the U. S. Cavalry. Upon his promotion, he was sent to California to do some surveying for the railroads and then reported to Texas. George B Anderson then served in various billets and saw action in the Utah War. In 1859, he was sent to Kentucky where he met and wed Miss Mildred Ewing.

George Anderson resigned his commission four days after his thirtieth birthday. The Governor of North Carolina accepted his services and appointed him Colonel in the 4th N. C. He led this unit in the Battle of Williamsburg May 5, 1862. He was then promoted to command a brigade in D. H. Hill’s Division and with it came a formal promotion to brigadier general on June 9th. Brigadier General Anderson ended up seeing action with this Division in the Seven Days Battle and the Battle of Malvern Hill where he was wounded seriously in the hand. He returned to duty in time to march north with the Army of Northern Virginia in the Maryland Campaign of 1862. General Anderson led his brigade in the Battle of South Mountain before coming down the Cumberland Valley to Sharpsburg, MD. The Army of Northern Virginia and the Union Army collided at Sharpsburg, MD. In the Battle of Sharpsburg, Anderson and his Tar Heel Brigade saw heavy fighting in the sunken road known as the Bloody Lane. His boys fought gallantly and repelled several attacks from Union troops. General Anderson remained with his troops fighting in the Bloody Lane until being shot in the ankle. George B. Anderson was taken from the field and transported to Staunton, VA. He eventually ended up in Raleigh, NC where his foot became infected and required amputation. George Burgwyn Anderson died in Raleigh, NC on October 16, 1862, nearly a month after he was wounded. His death was due to complications from the infected leg being amputated. His remains are interred at Oakwood Cemetery in Raleigh, NC.

General Robert Daniel Johnston

Written by Craig Pippen, Camp 2205, Stem, NC

Robert Daniel Johnston was born to Dr. William and Nancy Johnston in Mount Welcome, NC on March 19, 1837. Robert grew up and attended college and graduated from the University of North Carolina. He then attended the University of Virginia where he studied law. After graduating from the University of Virginia, he was admitted to the bar in North Carolina.

At the onset of the War Between the States, Johnston became a lieutenant in the local militia. Later, he was appointed Captain in Company K of the 23rd North Carolina in July, 1861. In April, 1862, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in the 23rd and fought as part of the Army of Northern Virginia and saw action during the Peninsula Campaign. He became commander of the regiment in the Battle of Seven Pines. During this engagement, he was wounded. Johnston returned to the 23rd in time to fight at the Battles of South Mountain and Sharpsburg.

In May of 1863, he commanded the 12th North Carolina Regiment at Chancellorsville after all of its field officers were wounded or killed. He again returned to the 23rd North Carolina to fight at Gettysburg, where he was wounded. In September of 1863, Johnston was promoted to Brigadier General and given command of Alfred Iverson’s Brigade. He commanded this brigade during the Overland Campaign of 1864 and was again wounded, this time at Spotsylvania. He returned to his brigade and participated in Jubal Early’s Shenandoah Campaign. He saw heavy action at the Battles of Winchester (3rd Battle), Fisher’s Hill, and Cedar Creek. He returned with the remnants of Early’s command to the trenches at Petersburg. During the Petersburg Campaign, Johnston served in temporary command of the division and was detached in March of 1865 to the Roanoke River line and tasked with catching deserters. He served until paroled at Charlotte in May of 1865.

Upon the end of hostilities, Robert D. Johnston returned to North Carolina and resumed the practice of law. He remained here for twenty years before moving to Alabama in 1887. In Alabama, he became President of the Birmingham Bank. Johnston also served as a U. S. Land Office Register. He and his wife, Elizabeth Evans, had nine children. At the time of his death in 1919 in Winchester Virginia, he had been one of the last surviving Confederate Generals. He is buried in the Stonewall Jackson Cemetery there.

General James Green Martin

Written by Craig Pippen, Camp 2205, Stem, NC

James Martin was born on February 14, 1819 to Dr William Martin and Sophia Martin in Elizabeth City, NC. Martin attended the United States Military Academy and graduated 14th in the class of 1840. In 1844, Martin married Mary Ann Read.

Upon his graduation from West Point he was commissioned a second lieutenant and assigned to the First United States Artillery. He served in the Mexican War and fought in the battles at Vera Cruz, Monterrey, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, and Churubusco. In the Churubusco battle, Martin lost his right arm from grapeshot. He yielded command of the battery to Thomas Jackson. He was brevetted to Major due to his actions at Churubusco and Contreras.

Upon the end of the Mexican war he was appointed to Fortress Monroe in Philadelphia as assistant quartermaster. He then went to Minnesota and was assigned to Fort Snelling, where his wife, Mary Ann, died. In February of 1858, Martin married his second wife, Hetty King. He then served in the Utah War with Albert Sydney Johnston before being assigned to Fort Riley in Kansas.

James G. Martin resigned his commission from the United States Army in June of 1861. He traveled to North Carolina and was commissioned a captain in the Cavalry. He was soon appointed Adjutant General of North Carolina. In this assignment he recommended that the southern states use blockade runners to receive supplies from Europe. Martin was given command of the

State’s forces and was appointed Major General of Militia. He continued to gather supplies and troops for the state of North Carolina. He was very successful in his recruiting and actually gathered 12,000 more men than required by quota. In May of 1862 he completed his recruiting duties and applied for a field position, which he received along with a commission as a Brigadier General in the provisional army. In August of 1862 he was assigned to the command of the North Carolina District. He then formed a brigade from the men under his command and took the field at Wilmington, NC in 1863.

General Martin and his brigade took part in the attack against New Bern, NC in February of 1864. Martin and his unit successfully drove Union troops away from Newport, NC. At the opening of the Overland Campaign in 1864, Robert E. Lee called Martin and his brigade to Virginia. He distinguished himself while attacking Union troops in the Petersburg area while under General D. H. Hill. He then joined Hoke’s Division. They fought at Cold Harbor and reinforced the Army of Northern Virginia. Martin then was sent back to Petersburg which came under siege from Union troops. While here his health began to fail him. He was sent to western North Carolina to command the Western North Carolina District. Martin served the Confederate Army until he surrendered to Union troops on May 6, 1865. Martin surrendered the last remaining Confederate troops in the state of North Carolina.

After the war was over, Martin was completely destitute. He began to study law. He was admitted to the bar and practiced law in Buncombe County, NC until his death on October 4, 1878. He is buried in the Riverside Cemetery in Asheville. NC.

Gen. Lewis Addison Armistead

Written by Craig Pippen, Camp 2205, Stem, NC

Born on February 18, 1817 in the home of his great-great grandfather in New Bern, NC was Lewis Addison Armistead. His father, Walker Armistead and his mother Elizabeth Stanly, descended from the English people and had been on the North American Continent since colonial times. Walker Armistead was a veteran of the War of 1812. Armistead’s uncle, Major George Armistead, was in command at Fort McHenry during the attack that yielded the Star Spangled Banner. Lewis followed in these footsteps, and attended the U. S. Military Academy in West Point, NY. Lo, as he was called by his friends, did not graduate. He resigned his position at West Point after an incident in which he smashed a plate over Jubal Early’s head. It is also noted that Lewis Armistead was not doing very well academically and this may have been another reason for his resignation.

With his father’s influence and status, Armistead was given a commission as a Second Lieutenant in the 6th U. S. Infantry. He was promoted to First Lieutenant in 1844. Also in 1844, Armistead married Cecillia Lee Love. They had two children. Lo then served in Arkansas. After serving in the Oklahoma Territory at Fort Washita, Armistead joined the Mexican American War. There he fought in numerous engagements and eventually was brevetted a major for his actions in the Battle of Chapultepec where he was wounded. After the conflict ended, Armistead was sent to Kentucky to recruiting duty. There in April of 1850, while stationed at Jefferson Barracks, his daughter died of illness. His family was then transferred to Fort Dodge where in December 1850 his wife Cecillia died as well. 1852 brought more bad news for Lewis Armistead and his son, as their family home in Virginia burned to the ground destroying everything. Lo and his son went back to Virginia to help the family rebuild. During this time period, he met and married his second wife, Cornelia T. Jamison. They both travelled west when Armistead returned to duty in the middle of 1853. Lewis and his new wife travelled in the west from various posts. They had a son named Lewis B. Armistead who died in December, 1854 and is buried next to his sister at Jefferson Barracks. His second wife died from cholera in 1855. Armistead, now promoted to captain, served in the Nebraska and Kansas Territories from 1855-1858. He took part in the Mohave Expedition in 1858-1859.

Armistead was in command of a small detachment in San Diego at the outbreak of the Civil War. There, he served with Winfield Hancock who was a quartermaster in Los Angeles. Armistead and Hancock became good friends before the war and ultimately fought each other on the field of battle. He travelled east and offered his services to the State of Virginia where he received a commission as a major before being given command of the 57th Virginia Regiment as its Colonel. April 1, 1862, he was promoted brigadier-general, and in this rank he was assigned to the command of a brigade in the division of Benjamin Huger. He led the brigade in the Seven Pines Battle. When Robert E. Lee took command of the Army of Northern Virginia, Armistead remained a brigade commander and fought in the Seven Days Campaign before leading the charge up Malvern Hill. He was with the Army at Second Bull Run and Sharpsburg. Armistead was appointed as the Provost Marshal during the Maryland Campaign and tasked with catching deserters. General Armistead was then sent to command a brigade in Pickett’s Division of Longstreet’s Corps. They did not participate in the Chancellorsville Battle due to being in southeastern Virginia around Suffolk.

Armistead travelled north with Pickett’s Division and the Army of Northern Virginia arriving in Gettysburg on the evening of the 2nd of July, 1863. In the third day of battle, Armistead and Pickett’s Division made a direct frontal assault on the center of the Union lines. In this charge, Lewis Armistead led his brigade to the Union lines. There, with his hat upon his sabre, he was shot and mortally wounded. His brigade fell back soon after his wounding and the High Tide of the Confederacy passed. Armistead was attended to by Captain Henry Bingham, a fellow Mason and was taken to the Spangler Farm house. Lewis Armistead’s wounds were believed to be non-mortal. However, he succumbed to infection related to the injuries he received while leading his brigade against the lines occupied by his friend, General Winfield Scott Hancock. He is buried in Baltimore, MD at the Old Saint Paul’s Cemetery. The Friend to Friend Masonic Memorial at Gettysburg, PA depicts a wounded Lewis Armistead and Captain Henry Bingham in the moments after Armistead was wounded.